Influence of gestational diabetes mellitus on fetal growth parameters
Authors:Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(3): 832-834
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Background & Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with maternal and fetal complications. Macrosomia is the common complication despite the attempts of maintaining the good glycemic control. Therefore, our study intended to evaluate the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the fetal growth parameters and birth weight.
Methods: Ultrasonograms was performed on 30 patients with GDM and 30 control subjects in the age group of 18 to 34 years and 32 to 40 weeks of gestation. Fetal abdominal circumference (AC), fetal head circumference (HC) and Gestational weight (GW) were noted, calculated and followed up to record their Birth weight (BW). One hour post prandial blood samples were collected for glucose estimation.
Results: The one hour PPBS was higher in GDM (cases: 146.3 ▒ 11.59 mg/dl, controls: 98 ▒ 13.25 mg/dl, p <0.001). AC (cases: 37.53 ▒ 2.04 cm, Controls: 34 ▒ 1.35, p <0.001), HC (cases: 35.28 ▒ 1.62, controls: 33.63 ▒ 0.77cm, p <0.001), GW (cases: 3629 ▒ 216.5 gms, controls: 2727 ▒ 186.2 gms, p <0.001) and BW (cases: 3859 ▒ 102 gms, controls: 2866 ▒148.5 gms, p <0.001) were found to be significantly high in GDM patients. With in the GDM group, there was no statistically significant difference in values of fetal growth parameters between pimigravida and multigravida.
Interpretation & Conclusion: Despite the attempts for good glycemic control there is a risk of macrosomia in GDM. Fetal growth parameters show a significant high values in GDM and there is no significant correlation with birth weight. Also, there is no significant difference in the PPBS and in fetal growth parameters between primigravida and multigravida in GDM cases.