Myelo-protective activity of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of vitex doniana in cyclophosphamide-induced myelo-suppression in wistar rats

Authors: Silas A Ufelle, Ernest O Ukaejiofo, Samuel I Ghasi , Chigozie N Okwuosa , Emeka E Neboh
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(1): 409 – 414  |  PDF File


Aims: Myelo-suppression is the most common dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy during the complex anti-cancer treatment and together, with its complications can also be the most lethal. The present study was designed to investigate the Myelo-protective activity of the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) in cyclophosphamide (CP) -induced anaemic models. Methods: Fifty (50) wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats per group labeled A to E. Group A received saline (5mL/kg) orally and served as baseline control whereas group B received CP (3mg/kg) intra-peritoneally (IP) alone, serving as positive control. Group C received only the aqueous extract (200mg/kg) orally, while group D received aqueous extract (200mg/kg) orally and CP (3mg/kg) IP. Group E received methanolic extracts (300mg/kg) orally and CP (3mg/kg) IP daily. On the Day 8, CP treatment was stopped and blood samples were collected from all the rats for full blood count (FBC). Blood and bone marrow samples were also collected on Day 15 and 22 respectively, from the rats for FBC and cell counts respectively. Results: The results at Day 8 showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in the parameters studied in group B, compared with the other groups. Groups D and E showed non-significant increase while group C had significant increase compared to group A. There was also a non-significant increase in group D compared with E. The recovery phase (day 15), showed that CP-induced anaemia was not restored in group B, with significant decreases (P<0.05) in haematological parameters compared to groups C, D and E. Groups D and E also showed slight decrease in the parameters compared to day 8. Day 22, however showed an increase in groups D and E whereas group B recorded further decrease in the parameters compared to day 15. Significantly increased neutrophil count (P<0.05) was generally observed in groups D and E compared with group B. The bone marrow cellularity (BMC) in group B decreased significantly (P<0.001) when compared with baseline control whereas group D BMC increased significantly (P<0.001) compared with groups B and E. Conclusion: The results show that leaf extracts of V. doniana could reduce toxicity induced by CP, with the aqueous extract showing much greater myelo-protective ability. This may indicate its usefulness in the possible treatment of anaemia in cancer therapy, even in humans.