Age, gender related prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese south indian adults

Authors:Desigamani kanniyappan , priya kalidhas, Rita Mary Aruna
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(2): 513 – 522  |  PDF File

Abstract

An increase in the prevalence of obesity and life style diseases due to improved economic status is quite evident in the recent years; obesity is an emerging health problem in developing countries like India. Hence. We conducted cross sectional study to determine prevalence and age, gender and degree of overweight specific trends in various cardiovascular risk factors among the urban adult in south India. Methods: simple random sampling cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors was performed in south India in 2008 to 2010. We assessed major risk factors such as obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance using pre-specified definitions in 490 subjects (male 228, female 262) aged 20-59 years of age. Age specific analyses were performed and significance of trends determined chi-square test, in different degree of overweight and their mean was compared by using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni test Results: The prevalence of overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2) was present in 33.26% (males 34.2%, females 32.44%), Obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m2) was present in 26.5% (males 24.5%, females 28.24%), high WC in 33.4% (males 39.9%, females 59.15%), high WHR in 32.0% (males 51.75%, females 43.4%) and hypertension in 25.7% (males 32.01%, females 19.46%) subjects. impaired fasting glucose (100–125 mg/dl) was present in 13.89% (17.11% males,10.68% females).Among the dyslipidemias, hypercholesterolemia was present in 31.67% ( 29.38% males ,33.96% females), high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl) in 32.93% (31.14% males, 34.73% females), hypertriglyceridemia(≥ 150 mg/dl) in 23.65% (26.7% males, 20.61% females) and low HDL cholesterol (male <40 mg/dl and females <50 mg/dl) in 41.95% (40.78% males, 43.12% females) subjects. Total: HDL cholestrol ratio ≥ 4.5 in 37.83% (35.96% males, 39.69% females), insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 4.0 in 27.18 %( 30.7%males, 23.66% females) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in 13.45 %( 16.22%males, 10.68%females). There is increase in mean BMI, WC, WHR, systolic and diastolic BP as these men move from age-groups of 20–39 to 40–59 years. Declining trends in HDL cholesterol levels but there is no significance in mean fasting blood glucose observed as these men move from age-groups of 20–39 to 40–59 years. The prevalence of overweight is high in age group of 20 – 39 years (men 38.18%, women 34.51%) and low in the age group of 40–59 years (men 30.50%, women 30.87%) obesity is high in age group of 40 –59 years in both men and women (men 26.27%, women 32.21%) and low in the age group of 20–39 years (men 22.72%, women 23.0%).