Microrna: a potential diagnostic biomarker in ovarian carcinogenesis

Authors: Paliwal Nidhi, Vashist Minakshi , Chauhan Meenakshi , Sharma Shiksha , Bazard Geeta
Int J Biol Med Res. 2019; 10(1): 6672-6677  |  PDF File

Abstract

Among the eleven most common cancers, ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of deaths after lung, breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. It is considered as a “silent killer” because of diagnosis at later stage. Ovarian cancer remains a disease for which improved non-invasive, serum or plasma screening tests are still lacking. Emphasis on research is to develop an effective test that can detect the disease in its earliest stages, which would ultimately result in decreased mortality. Many studies of ovarian cancer have focused on DNA repair genes, p53 genes and protein coding genes. However, RNA molecules transcribed from noncoding genes also have biological functions. Noncoding RNAs include microRNAs that cleave a target mRNA and repress translation of proteins. Many recent studies have suggested that miRNA deregulation is associated with the initiation and progression of human cancer. MicroRNAs affect various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and mortality. Therefore, they are often called as tiny master regulators of the human genome. Exploration of potential of miRNAs in diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer can open a new therapeutic window in clinical research.