Suppression of viral load by belladonna 200c through modulation of tlr and type-i ifn signalling pathways

Authors:Urmita Chakraborty, Moonmoon Sinha, Arghyadeep Bhattacharjee, Debdatta Nayak, Anil Khurana, Raj kumar Manchanda, Debabrata Sarkar, Satadal Das
Int J Biol Med Res. 2019; 10(1): 6635-3340  |  PDF File

Abstract

Toll like receptor (TLR) mediated intracellular signalling plays a pivotal role in regulating the pathogens in the initiation of the innate immune response via the induction of interferons (IFNs) controlling the viral replication and subsequent severity of the infection. In complementary medicine, ultradiluted extract of Atropa belladonna (Belladonna 200C) is widely used in Japanese encephalitis (JE) treatment. The antiviral property of Belladonna 200C has already been established by in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, the antiviral mechanism of Belladonna in connection with the TLRs has not been studied in detail for JE. Thus under this circumstances the present study was focussed to investigate the role of TLRs in experimentally infected chick eggs with JE virus. Pre-treatment with Belladonna 200C significantly reduced the overall viral load (p<0.0001) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and brain which correlated with the morbid pathological changes of the organs. TLR4 expression was significantly upregulated among the direct virus infected group compared to the Belladonna 200C pretreated virus infected group. There were increased expressions of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8 as well as IFN-α and IFN-β in CAM and brain among the Belladonna 200C pre-treated group. Taken together, the result indicates that Belladonna 200C exerts the antiviral effect by influencing the TLR signalling pathway which is one of the contributing factors in the immune-pathogenicity of JE virus infection. The present study may help in development of targeted immunotherapy by Belladonna 200C against JE virus in future by altering innate immune signalling.