Dietary Iron Deficiency Anemia And Its Concequences On Pregnancy Outcome And Duration Of Gestation In Rats

Authors:Neetu mathur , Sandeep Mathur, Suresh C Joshi
Int J Biol Med Res. 2010; 1(3): 49 - 53  |  PDF File

Abstract

To study the effect of dietary iron deficiency anemia on duration of gestation and pregnancy outcome the female albino rats of Wistar strain, with similar body weight (180-200g) were fed on iron deficient diets (30, 15, 7, 2mgFe/kg of diet) and one group on iron sufficient control diet (50 mgFe/kg of diet) for about one month. The females were then kept for mating which was confirmed by detection of a vaginal plug, and this day was denoted as day 0. The females were kept on the same diets through out the pregnancy and the blood samples were collected at the starting of the experiment, during pregnancy, at the time of delivery and after one month of delivery for estimation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin and blood hemoglobin. The hormone analyses were performed on fully automated Chemiluminescent Immuno Assay based instrument (ADVIA centaur, immunoassay system, USA). After delivery weight of mother and neonates and the number of neonates was noted. Student’s t-test showed no significant difference in the number and survival of the fetuses, with decrease in the maternal dietary iron. A significant (p<0.001) reduction in the gestation period was observed in the anemic mothers. The weights of the neonates of the iron deficient females were decreased significantly (p<0.001). Two-way analysis of variance showed a very significant (p<0.05) rise in the level of ACTH when analyzed with two grouping factors (iron status and stages viz. before pregnancy, during pregnancy, after delivery). After delivery significant low levels of prolactin was observed in the severe anemic mothers, resulting in the failure of lactation. High ACTH in anemic mothers caused the stimulation of corticotropin releasing hormones in the fetuses and resulted into stress due to which the blocking effect of progesterone diminishes and leads to the preterm delivery. Insufficient supply of nutrients to the developing fetuses causes low neonatal weight.