Morphology and morphometric analysis of human placentae

Authors:Parimala Sirikonda, Rajasekhar Katikireddi, Sandhya Rani Chatripalli
Int J Biol Med Res. 2021; 12(1): 7236-7243  |  PDF File

Abstract

Abstract: Introduction: Placenta is the vital organ which maintains the pregnancy and promotes the normal fetal development. It anchors the fetus to the uterine wall and allows the uptake of nutrients, elimination of waste, gas exchange via the mother’s blood supply. In our study, we included 82 normal full term placentae and the placentae of 3 PIH, 2 GDM, 2 Anemia mothers. Objective: In our study, we included 82 normal full term placentae and the placentae of 3 PIH, 2 GDM, 2 Anemia mothers. Our main aim is to study the morphology and morphometry of these placentae and analyze how these parameters will help in assessing the fetal health. Materials and Methods: 89 Human placentae were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The parameters studied are - shape, diameter, thickness, weight, maternal surface number of cotyledons, fetal surface vascular pattern, type of umbilical cord insertion, diameter of umbilical cord, number of umbilical vessels. Results: The predominant shape is round. Mean diameter is 17.22±2.47. The mean thickness in the center is 2.75±0.60 and at the periphery is 1.41±0.54. The average weight of the placenta is 438.76±100.30. Mean no. of cotyledons = 16.04±3.57. magistral type of vascular pattern on fetal surface was seen frequently. Eccentric and central type of umbilical cord insertion is seen in most of the placentae. The mean diameter of the umbilical cord is 1.79±0.85. All the Placentae in our study showed two arteries and one vein. Conclusion: Variations in the morphology and morphometry of the placenta are usually associated with the fetal growth retardation, big babies, childhood hypertension, and various other pathological conditions. Hope our study adds knowledge to the placental parameters and help the Obstetricians, Embryologists, Radiologists, other clinicians and surgeons to understand the patho-physiological mechanisms of Placenta and design the treatment plans for a better maternal and fetal outcome.