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Prevalence of M. tuberculosis and Associated Risk Factors Among Suspected Patients in Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kudu, Jigawa State.

Authors:Obadire Samuel Olalere, Misan Olley, Oke Olakunle Clement, Ige Ilesanmi Paul.
Int J Biol Med Res. 2022; 13(2): 7457-7462  |  PDF File

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) stands as a major global health problem, ranking as the second highest cause of death from an infectious disease globally, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Aim: To identify mycobacteria tuberculosis at the molecular level in symptomatic presumptive TB in Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu Jigawa State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross- sectional study was conducted between April to December, 2019 at the Federal Medical Centre Birnin – Kudu (FMC, BKD), Jigawa state. Suspects presenting with any of the following symptoms was recruited: the presence of symptoms suggestive of TB like chronic cough for a period of greater than 2 weeks, night sweats, fatigue, unexpected loss of weight, and fever. Each eligible patient (272) who signed written consent provided clinical specimens. From each patients presumptive of pulmonary TB, 4 ml of sputum sample was collected. In the case of presumptive extra-pulmonary TB, four ml of either pus, CSF samples was collected. Samples was immediately processed for Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Testing for HIV was done according to the current national algorithm recommended by the Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria. Results: Total number of 52 subjects were M. tuberculosis positive with a total prevalence of 19.1% and total prevalence of 1.1% rifampicin resistance. Most 157 (57.7%) were males. Age groups 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 have TB positivity rate of 33.5%, 26.5%, and 12.9% respectively. Majority 194 (71.3%) of participants were rural dwellers. Prevalence of HIV was 50 (18.4%) among study participants. The measure of association showed that there was significant association (p<0.05) between TB positivity with Types of residence, History of previous Tb treatment and reason for diagnosis. With urban residence having 3.23 times likely of being TB positive than rural dwellers. Conclusion: Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis prevalent is low in pulmonary tuberculosis cases in the study area.