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Pattern of lipid profile in adult nephrotic syndrome patients in nigeria

Authors:AO Adekoya , BJ Adekoya , OO Desalu , A Aderibigbe
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 954 - 960  |  PDF File


Background: Nephrotic syndrome is one of the commonest kidney diseases in adults with hyperlipidemia as its recognized cardinal feature. The data in the literature concerning the lipoprotein distribution of cholesterol in patients with nephrosis have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to determine the pattern of hyperlipidemia in adult Nigerians with nephrotic syndrome. Method: This is a cross sectional study in which 50 consecutive patients with nephrotic syndrome aged 16 years and above, who were referred to the medical outpatient clinic of University of Ilorin between July 2004 and June 2006 were studied. All subjects were fully assessed clinically. All confirmed nephrotic patients seen during the study period were included if their ages were above 16 years. 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were used as controls. Blood samples were collected for routine investigations. Blood samples were also taken for fasting lipid profile. Serum lipid levels were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods. The data obtained were analysed using the Epi-info version 6.1 statistical software. Frequency analysis of all the variables were then generated while the various measures of central tendency and of dispersion were computed for quantitative variables. The statistical significance of continuous variables were estimated using the student t test while those for categorical variables were determined using the Chi-square test. Statistical significance was said to have been achieved when the p value was equal or less than 0.05. The confidence interval was 95%. Results: There were 27 males and 23 females in the case studied while there were 30 males and 20 females in controls. The mean of serum albumin in the nephrotic was 17.74 ±4.27 while the corresponding mean value in the control was 49.38 ±9..8.(p<0.01). The mean value of 24 hour urinary protein excretion in the nephrotic was 7.72+ 3.56 while the corresponding mean value in the control was 0.40 + 0.08 (p<0.01).Forty-three patients (86%) with nephrotic syndrome had elevated (abnormal) total cholesterol (P<0.05) 26% had low (abnormal) HDL-C (P<0.05) and high (abnormal) LDL-C (P<0.05). 90% had elevated (abnormal) Triglyceride. (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hyperlipidemia is not uncommon in adults with nephrotic syndrome in Nigeria and the pattern shows abnormalities in the different categories of lipid fractions. There is need for thorough lipid profile screening in this category of kidney disease patients in Nigeria