Prevalence of tuberculosis among hiv/aids patients in obafemi awolowo university teaching hospital complex oauthc, ile –ife

Authors:Olaniran O , R E Hassan-Olajokun , MA Oyovwevotu RA Agunlejika
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 874 -877  |  PDF File

Abstract

In this study, the prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) among HIV/AIDS patients in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC) Ile-Ife was investigated. In addition, the comparison between microscopical and radiological techniques of TB diagnosis was studied as well as the specimen of most diagnostic value. Out of 86 confirmed Acquired Immunodeficient Syndrome (AIDS) patients examined microscopical with Ziehl Neelson (ZN) cold staining method for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) in sputa, were positive for AFB showing a prevalence of 13.8%. the prevalence of TB in AIDS patients with regards to age group and sex distribution showed the highest number of positive cases to be in age group 21-30 yr (5.8%), males made up of 7 (8.1%) and females 5(5.8%). The radiological technique proved more sensitive with 52 (60%) positive cases than the microscopic technique with only 12 (13.9%). In the study of the most valuable specimen, early morning specimens (Collection samples) were of more diagnosis value than others (collected at the clinic between 9am 12 noon) and gave the highest positive result of 13.9% while samples I and III were 10.5% and 9.3% respectively. The high proportion of negative results (86%) obtained from microscopic examination underscores the need for cultural method and clinical diagnosis to accurately identify and confirm TB in HIV/AIDS patients who are sputum negative but may be co-infected. This work confirms that there is a close link existing between active tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS infection in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This calls for urgent need to always screen HIV carriers for TB and recommend preventive therapy to stop latent TB developing into active form as advocated by the UNAIDS (WHO)