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Biomarkers of cypermethrin (synthetic pyrethroid) toxicity - biochemical alterations in cyprinus carpio, a freshwater edible fish

Authors:P. Neelima., K. Govinda Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao., N. Gopala Rao and J. Chandra Sekhara Rao*
Int J Biol Med Res. 2016; 7(2): 5574-5581  |  PDF File

Abstract

Pesticides are one of the most potentially harmful toxicants introduced into the aquatic environment. Aquatic ecosystems that run through agricultural areas have high probability of pesticide contamination by runoff and leaching. Synthetic pyrethroid pesticides are preferred above organophosphates, carbamates and organochlorines as these have high efficiency, low mammalian toxicity and easy biodegradability. Type II pyrethroids such as cypermethrin are more effective, available as emulsifiable concentrates which keeps it in solution longer and are usually 2-9 times more toxic than the technical grade forms, most likely due to synergistic interactions. Due to its indiscriminate use, cypermethrin makes their entrance into natural water bodies and ultimately affects the several nontarget aquatic organisms such as fish by inhibiting growth, metabolism, histopathology, hematology and thus adversely affects its meat quality and population. Fish responding to the changes in their environment with greater sensitivity, can be used as biomarkers of acute ad chronic toxic effects of various pollutants. Biochemical changes are better indices of damage by pollution than the conventional pathophysiological changes. Changes in biochemical parameters point to the development of sublethal abnormalities, which limit potential of an animal population in effectively coping with the normal stress and strain for survival. In this paper we have reviewed the toxic effects of cypermethrin on various biochemical indices in a non-target organism, fish which provide a base line data for further research investigations and future environmental management programmes.