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Bovine babesiosis and its current status in ethiopia: a review

Authors:Bovine babesiosis, Babesia, Ethipiopia, redwater, tickfever
Int J Biol Med Res. 2016; 7(3): 5699-5706  |  PDF File


Bovine babesiosis also known as redwater, or tickfever is the worldwide most important arthropod-borne disease of cattle that causes significant morbidity and mortality. It is caused by intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which is transmitted by ticks and affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally humans.Two important Babesia species: B. bigemina and B bovis infect cattle. They are widespread in tropical and subtropical areas including Ethiopia and are vectored by one host tick Rhipicephalus species and transmission is manly transovarially.The objective of this paper are reviewing available literature in relation to epidemiology, diagnosis, public health importance, control and preventions of bovine babesiosis and highlighting the disease status in Ethiopia. During the tick bite, sporozoites are injected into the host and directly infect red blood cells. Babesia produces acute disease by hemolysis and circulatory disturbance mechanism. Microscopicexamination isstill cheapest and fastest methods used to identify Babesia parasites. Butnotreliable for detection of carrier animals;inthese cases molecular detectionmethods,orserologicaldiagnosticprocedurestodemonstratespecificantibodies,arere quired.AlthoughsomespeciesofBabesiasuchasB.microticanaffecthealthypeople,cattleparasite sseemtocausediseaseonlyinpeoplewhoareimmunocompromised. Early detection of blood parasites is highly beneficial active prevention and control of Babesiosisand it is achieved by three main methods: immunization, chemoprophylaxis and vector control. Imidocarb is the drug of choice for bovine babesiosis. Theuse of geneticallyresistantcattlesuchasB.indicusis proposed as sustainable approach to decrease theincidenceof disease.