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Comparative toxicity studies of rauwolfia vomitoria leaf and root extracts in wistar rats

Authors: Ebuehi Osaretin A.T.*, Asoro Iroghama, Igwo-Ezikpe Miriam N. , Imaga Ngozi O., Erukainure Ochuko L, Lawal Ridwan A., Adenekan Sunday, Duncan Uba and Micah Chijoke
Int J Biol Med Res. 2018; 9(2): 6357-6362  |  PDF File  |  Category: Animal Research


Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) is used in the African traditional medical practice for the management of various diseases such as cough, malaria and as an anti-psychotic. The present study investigates the toxicological potential of the administration of the leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the brain, kidney and liver of male Wistar rats. The toxicity study was carried out by Lorke’s method. For the acute study, thirteen groups of 5 rats each were orally administered 10, 100 and 1000mg/kg of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and root of R.vomitoria. Mortality was recorded after 24h. For the sub acute, thirteen groups of five rats each were orally given doses 1600, 2900 and 5000mg aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and root of R.vomitoria. Observation continued for 2weeks after administration to check for any mortality arising from delayed toxicity. At the end, surviving animals were sacrificed and pathological changes were observed. There was a dose -dependent increase in the liver enzymes in the sub chronic and sub acute. Histological studies reveal area of inflammations in the liver sub acute study. No significant differences were noticed in the concentration of urea, creatinine and the electrolytes among the various group and control. There were no marked cellular changes in the kidney tissue. Convulsion was observed in sub acute study among the animals at high dose of 5000mg of the root extract. The use of the leaf and roof extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria is safe to the liver, kidney and brain when used at low doses over a long time but harmful when used at high doses over a short time.