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Prevallence of schistosomiasis (urinary bilharzia) in sinazongwe district

Authors:MUNSAKA SIANKUKU
Int J Biol Med Res. 2021; 12(3): 7343-7347  |  PDF File

Abstract

This study investigated the prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Zambia’s Sinazongwe district. It set out to evaluate the effectiveness of the praziquantel distribution programs in primary schools, as well as conduct a snail survey to isolate the vector responsible for the transmission of the parasite in the study area and explore the water sources and major ways by which the disease is acquired. The study also compared the infection rate of boys to that of the girls. Three primary schools in Sinazongwe district were sampled by convenient sampling and these were: Mwezya primary, Sinakasikili primary and Maamba private. 542 urine samples were collected from pupils in labeled, sterile, wide mouthed, screw capped plastic containers and the pupils were given an instruction to deposit midstream and terminal urine. The samples were processed and examined in the laboratory at Maamba Hospital. Snail survey was carried out along 3 streams that are near the selected schools; Siamaambo stream which is near Mwezya primary school, Kanzinze stream which is near Sinakasikili primary school and another stream also called Kanzinze which is near Maamba private school. 1km of each stream was surveyed. Snails collected were sorted out according to species; and the number of Bulinus globosus snails collected were counted and further examined to detect cercaria. From the study, it was found that schistosomiasis is still highly existent in the district despite the ongoing administration of praziquantel; nonetheless, most of the infections are of low intensity and more males were infected than females. From the snail survey, Bulinus globosus the intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium was found to be among the several snail species in Siamaambo stream. The Bulinus globosus snails collected released cercaria when exposed to a light source, therefore they were infected and were/are the source of the bilharzia infection in Mwezya (Mwezya primary school). From results obtained, it can be seen that despite the administration of praziquantel to school going children, schistosomiasis will still be a problem in Sinazongwe district because the source of infection is not dealt with; as a result, there is continuous re-infection of the treated and untreated children.