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A study of gross morphological differences in appearance of ligature mark in post-mortem cases of asphyxial deaths in a tertiary care centre of haryana

Authors:Kunal Khanna, *Jitender Kumar Jakhar, Sandeep Kumar Giri, Naveen Sharma, Gajender Yadav
Int J Biol Med Res. 2023; 14(4): 7669-7672  |  PDF File  |  DOI No.: 11.2023-72575175

Abstract

Aim & objectives: To study the difference between morphology, pattern and variations in ligature mark in cases of the hanging and ligature strangulation. Material & methods: The ligature mark was studied in detail in cases of asphyxial deaths due to hanging and ligature strangulation brought for the autopsy in the mortuary of a tertiary care centre of Haryana on 64 autopsy subjects. Results: A total number of 64 cases were included in the study out which 60 cases were of hanging and 4 cases were of ligature strangulation. The direction of ligature mark was oblique in all 60 (100%) cases of hanging and transverse in all 04 (100%) cases of strangulation. The ligature mark was interrupted in 43 (72%) cases of hanging, continuous in 17 (28%) cases of hanging whereas interrupted in 02 (50%) cases while continuous in 02 (50%) cases of ligature strangulation. The ligature mark was situated above thyroid cartilage in 44 (73%) cases and at the level of the thyroid cartilage in 16 (27%) cases of hanging while it was below the level of thyroid cartilage in all 04 (100%) cases of ligature strangulation. Conclusion: The obliquity of ligature mark is one of the best measure to differentiate hanging and ligature strangulation. However, discontinuation, interruption and position of ligature mark either above or at the level of thyroid cartilage also strongly suggests hanging.