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Pharmacognostical identification of leaves of medicinal plants ficus carica linn. and catharanthus roseus (linn.) g.don

Authors:Sumbul Rehman , Sehrish Khan , Ameera Ayyub , Sana Mustaqeem and Aisha Razi
Int J Biol Med Res. 2023; 14(4): 7655-7659  |  PDF File  |  DOI No.: 11.2023-98471448


The identification of medicinal plants is an essential step in ensuring their purity and authenticity, particularly before leading any phytochemical or biological studies. This process helps to prevent adulteration or substitution. The current study presents the standard pharmacognostical analysis of two leaves of two medicinal plants, namely Ficus carica Linn. and Catharanthus roseus (Linn.) G. Don. Additionally, it highlights the significance and necessity of conducting pharmacognostical studies. F. carica Linn. (Moraceae) commonly known as ‘Fig’ is native to Asia and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical nations, its dried fleshy receptacles-fruits are used as laxatives, emollient, demulcent, diuretic, used to treat piles, gout, arthritis and jaundice. Latex is also reported to be used as anthelminthic and for treating mouth ulcers. Another commonly used medicinal plant selected for the study was C. roseus (Linn.) G. Don of the Apocynaceae family, formerly known as ‘Vinca rosea’ and commonly known as ‘Madagaskar periwinkle’ is extensively distributed in India. It is the main source of vinca alkaloids used for the treatment of cancer and diabetes, also used as antiseptic, antipyretic, leaves are used in menorrhagia, blood dysentery etc. Both plants are extensively commonly used for different ailments, and plethora of research work has been done; but pharmacognostical identification of its leaves is limited. Therefore, In the present study pharmacognostical evaluation of macro and micro-morphological character along with the organoleptic characters (shape, size, color, odor, texture etc.), morphological features, macroscopic study of part used like leaf type, phyllotaxy, venation, vein islet number, lamina, base, apex etc.; microscopic study of transverse section of leaf (stomatal number, epidermal no, shape and type of trichome, palisade ratio etc.) was done. In terms of pharmacognostical identification, the present study can make a significant contribution, as the findings may contribute to the future determination of the integrity and identity of the aforementioned plants.