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Variations of gonadal artery: embryological basis and clinica significance

Authors:Anupma Gupta, Rikki Singal, Daisy Singh  
Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 1006 - 1010  |  PDF File


ABSTRACT- With the advancement of new operative techniques within the abdominal cavity, the anatomy of gonadal vessels has assumed much more importance. Knowledge of variations of the gonadal artery is essential during renal and gonadal surgery as these variations may influence the blood flow to the kidney and gonadal glands and cause some pathological conditions as varicocele and gonadal atrophy. Aims- This study was designed to assess the percentage of variations in origin and course of the gonadal arteries and discuss their clinical significance and embryonic development to educate clinicians involved in abdominal and urogenital surgical procedures. Methods- Material of this study comprised of 30 well embalmed dissection room cadavers of known sex. The abdominal cavity was opened by routine dissection procedure and the origin and course of gonadal arteries was traced. Variations in number, origin and course of the gonadal arteries were also observed. Results – In the present study, the gonadal artery was normal in the origin, number and course in 55(91.6%) cases. In the remaining 5 (8.3%) cases different variations were observed. The variations found in this study include the gonadal arteries arching over the renal vein (1.6%), arising from the renal arteries (6.6%) and passing through a hiatus in the renal vein. Male and female ratio was 2:1 and all the variations were encountered in male cadavers. Conclusion- The awareness of such arterial variations could be of paramount importance to the vascular surgeons and urologist and oncologist, during surgery in the retroperitoneal region. The presence of such anomalies, if unrecognized, could prove to be hazardous during surgery.