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Risk factors in pre-hypertensive individuals for cardiovascular morbidity. a population based study in wardha district of central india.

Authors:Mohit Sharma , Sourya Acharya , Samarth Shukla , Devendra Rajput , SN Mahajan , Nikhil Rathi , Chetan Mahure , Leny Mathews
Int J Biol Med Res. 2013; 4(1): 2696 - 2702  |  PDF File

Abstract

Aim: To assess the association between prehypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH)/DMIMS University and JN Medical college of Wardha District in the year 2011. AVBRH is a 950 bedded rural hospital. 200 persons (100 controls and 100 cases p;rehypertensives) between 35–75 years old, completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric and blood pressure measurements performed using standardized procedures. Fasting glucose was measured using a capillary blood sample. Analysis yielded crude, and sex-specific estimates for prehypertension and other Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD) risk factors. Odds ratios for associations of prehypertension with CVD risk factors were obtained using Logistic Regression. Observations and Results: Prehypertension was more common in males, 35% (CI 31%–39%), than females, 25% (CI 22%–28%). Almost 46% of participants were overweight; 19.7% were obese; 7.2% had diabetes mellitus and 17.8% smoked cigarettes. With the exception of cigarette smoking and low physical activity, all the CVD risk factors had significantly higher prevalence in the prehypertensive group (p for trend < 0.001) compared to the normotensive group. Odds of obesity, overweight, and increased waist circumference were significantly higher among younger prehypertensive participants (35–54 years old) when compared to normotensive young participants, but not among those 55–75 years-old. Among men, being prehypertensive increased the odds of having >/=3 CVD risk factors versus no risk factors almost three-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.8 [CI 1.1–7.2]) while among women the odds of >/=3 CVD risk factors was increased two-fold (OR 2.0 [CI 1.3–3.8]). Conclusion: Prehypertension is associated with increased prevalence of other CVD risk factors. Health-care providers should recognize the increased CVD risk of prehypertension and should seek to identify and treat modifiable risk factors in these persons. It is time that we prescribe healthy lifestyle and help patients “fill the lifestyle prescription”.